In New Zealand and many western nations numbers attending christian churches have been dropping. In New Zealand, less that 10% of people attend a church. We live in an increasingly secular reality, where christianity is just one of many faiths contending for peoples lives. It seems christianity isn't relevant to many people any more.
But what is the matter, is it that "christianity isn't relevant any more" or that we have forgotten about the relevancy to many people.
In our quest to make christianity relevant to people we have forgotten the message of salvation and have missed the point. Instead of living lives that are changed loving examples of Gods righteousness, we have become marketers, trying to sell our message that "God Loves you" - Christianity has become a commodity that we try to sell. Christianity has become one of the many products that we can use so we can have a better life. The church pastor has become CEO and his elders, a board of representatives, the music team, the marketing team and the mission statement the slogan that makes that church different from the rest other churches and religions out in the marketplace. This all sounds well and good and many have come through christ through this model but there are problems with this, in our aim to do this we have watered down the truth of the gospel to make it feel good, we have sold Jesus the solution to lifes unhappyness and pill to solve all our worries.
Lets look first community of beleivers. They were left to figure out how to make the message of christ relevent to thier environment that they lived in. If you look at the message its rather laughable, the message was of a crucified messiah who rose again on the third day. The cross of all things isn't really cool. To a first centuary Roman citizen it was both an object of terror and an object of scorn. It was foolishness to beleive that a man who died on a cross could show a gods love for humanity. In Jewish tradition a person who died on a cross was seen to be cursed by God, it didn't seem possible that the Jewish messiah, a man chosen by God would die a cursed death on a tree. On top of this there were many more faiths that you could follow, from the cult of the emperor, to a mix of pagan beliefs. Many Greeks pursued the wisdom of the stoics and the cynics and beleived that if they chased after earthly wisdom while giving up the passions of the here and now they would find fulfilment. The early Christians were living in a world quite like ours. They had a message that was foolish, and were competing with a whole lot of other religious traditions vying for the attention of the Roman citizen.
The astounding thing about the foolish message of the Gospel is that people came and became christians. Why did people do this.
Something in the community of followers of beleivers made them look different. Something made the early christians look and smell different from the world they lived in. Something made them a dangerous subversive force in the world they lived in. What was it?
I beleive that the reason why the early Christians became to be seen as attractive was that they were different from the world that they lived in. They served one another first and then they served the community around them. They lived at peace with other, while others fought and complained and bickered with one another. They sacrificed their lives for one another while people in the world put themselves first. They put christ and his cross at the centre. They served the poor and healed the sick. They were Jesus to the community that they lived in. And as a result people realied something was different about them. They were attracted to the good God deads they did.
Our Ministry should aim to put Christ at the centre, intending to live a life like Jesus. It should share the good news of the Gospel that Jesus came to earth as a man humbly and obediently living a life in communion with his father. Jesus came to serve and teach people and then show the love of his father for his creation through his obedient death on the cross. He called people to repent and take up thier cross and follow him. We should do this too! His whole life showed the love of God for humanity, and showed humanity what it means to live differently than the world, it attracted people, criticism, pain and suffering and changed the world forever. (cf.Phi 2:6-11)
I will end on this point, we are not perfect, we aint going to get this right all. It is only by the grace of God and by his spirit. We are going to fall and God is going to pick us up, but we strive to immitate our Lord, and by doing so, show Gods love to the world. Even through our weakness we show Gods goodness.
Our aim in that we should see the world reconciled to himself, sharing the wonderful message of reconciliation to all humanity (2 Cor 5:19).
Sunday, September 24, 2006
In New Zealand and many western nations numbers attending christian churches have been dropping. In New Zealand, less that 10% of people attend a church. We live in an increasingly secular reality, where christianity is just one of many faiths contending for peoples lives. It seems christianity isn't relevant to many people any more.
Posted by Nathanael Baker at 1:25 PM
Tuesday, September 19, 2006
This Blog is one Year old! Crazy! Amazing what can happen in one year. I have blogged on many issues
What will this blog be like in a years time. I've grappled through a number of issues of faith, wrestled with God and continue to. My beleifs change and I grow - but my dedication to my lord and saviour, Jesus Christ continues. My mission is to show the saving love of Jesus in a seeing that God wants to both bring salvation in the here and now, and give people future hope where the kingdom of God is fully established here on earth. This blog continues to show that I'm unfinished, and I'm happy with that fact. I want to change and continue grow. I won't have all the answers this side of heaven, but I aim to be live my life in a way that pleases my father in heaven - I'm still finding out what that means and will continue to blog frustrations, process and growth. I will fall down and graze myself sometimes ending up with a limp and lots and lots ofr pain, but God graciously picks me up. I will learn from my falls most of the time will continue to change. This process of course wont be finished here in this life, but I am on a Journey, where I am changing and growing. I look forward to see how this blog pans out it the coming year. Its a work in process, just like I am!
Wow it is exciting!
Posted by Nathanael Baker at 9:15 PM
The role of the spirit is important in the Christian life and plays part in the wholistic nature of christianity. The role of spirituality has become more important and has been rediscovered with the rise of the 'renewal movements' in western Christianity. The importance of the spirit and the the chamismata (The Spiritual gifts) have acquired new importance and meaning as the Christian faith has continued in its journey and going in its ebbs and flows, particularly in a world that sees spirituality is the new cool, while organised religion has become a dirty concept.
For Paul the spirit is not central, Christ is, but the spirit is close to the center and is the means for living the Christian life. The spirit is the power behind ethics and living a life that is different from the world around Christians. The motive of the spirit is to live a life of love, encouraging Christians within the body through the spirit and showing the power and love of God to those who are outside the communities of the believers. For Paul, all believers are given the gift of the spirit and are possessed with Spirit. The spirit of God is proof of being in Christ and being part of the covenant community of God. The Spirit frees Christians from the power of sin and the flesh over their life, so that they can live a life that brings glory to God. The work of the spirit is shown by the fruit of the spirit, these are ethical characteristics, that describe what life in the spirit should look like. It is contrasted with the works of the flesh. The fruit are the reproduction of the characteristics of Christ in the life of the believers and the community of believers. The spirit works in the community of believers to being about a community of love, which follows the pattern set by Christ. It is self-giving and it is given so that the church can be lifted up. Through the spirit, all are equal, all in the community of believers – race, gender, socioeconomic condition. All Christians are given the spirit (Gal 3:28). The promise of the walking by the spirit is that a Christian will not fulfill the work of the flesh but will fulfill the work of the spirit, and will fulfill the spirit of the law, which is to love one another.
Pauls spirituality and relation to his theology
Many have found a tension between rational thought and spiritual experiences. Particularly in the modern day and age, rational thought and knowlegde was more important than of experience. The importance was put on “knowing”. In the Christian faith this has meant that people have put memorizing bible verses off by heart and being able to give an apologetic for biblical faith as being more important than experience. But the other side of the coin is that the person whose reality is based on experience, particularly in the charismatic and pentacostal church have come to view experience as more important than knowledge, they become reliant on seeing the miraculous to believe that God is at work in their life and their community.
For Paul though there is an interaction between his experiences, and knowledge that he is received. Paul theological convictions are based on a number of pillars. His Jewish convictions that he had been instilled with all his life, particularly his belief that there is only one true God, YHWH and that Israel are the chosen people of God. He is also deeply influenced by the traditions of early Christianity. Throughout Paul's letters we see him incorporating early Christian Hymns, prayers, liturgies and creeds and instruction is his Epistles. He has come to see Christs life, death and resurrection and his coming return as central to Gods plan for humanity. Paul also uses his knowledge of the hellenistic traditions to relate to his audience, both using imagery and Greek rhetorical and philosophical practice to make his point. We Then come to his experience, for Paul, it was his experience of God that led him to interpret the traditional elements of his Jewish thought and give them new emphasis. This happened through the experiential event on the road to domascus, where he encountered the Risen Jesus (Gal 1:11-17; 1 Cor 15:8-11). This for Paul caused a change in world view, particularly his complete reavaluation of the Torah and its meaning to his life. This event should not be seen as a existentialist event, where Pauls theology was downloaded into his brain by God at his conversion, but the point that Paul maintained as a reference point for future reflection. For Paul there is an interdependence of his spiritual experience and the tradition that he holds. He does not throw one or other out, but hold's them in a creative tension, one that Christians should learn from in their own spiritual journey. Christian spiritual experience should be seen as important, indeed necessary, but it should be tempered by knowledge of the scriptures and understanding of the Gospel.
Posted by Nathanael Baker at 9:04 PM
Righteousness is a misunderstood and loaded theological term in Christian circles today. It has been smudged by Christian interpretations over the century's and its meaning has been changed to the point that maybe Christians have forgotten its true meaning and how it explains Gods character in this day and age. God ‘s righteousness has been explained in terms of his righteous anger and Judgment, and the punishment of sin, rather than seeing Gods righteousness as the ultimate example of Gods love and mercy for humanity and Gods longing the restore right relationship with humanity. Ultimately God wants right relationship with humanity, but also to see humanity restore right relationships with each other, an world in which peace and justice reign – the new age.
Gods promise of Righteousness
The Story of the Old Testament scriptures of how a perfect world that God created was put into chaos by the reign of sin. God’s goal for the whole of creation is shalom, that is making everything right once again and put creation back into order according to Gods perfect plan. In the Old Testament God chooses the people of Israel to fulfill his plan and bring the world back to shalom. God’s righteousness to all people will be shown through his covenantal faithfulness to Israel. In Jewish tradition, a covenant was formed between Israel and God, a covenant is a lasting relationship set on a long-term commitment, they had to be obedient to the mosaic law to that their covenantal relationship with God would be maintained. The Problem is for Paul and others that Gods righteousness hasn't been shown through Israel, the dream of the Jewish people hadn't been fulfilled, indeed a whole lot of catastrophes had come along the way and Israel was under the control of a Pagan empire at the time that Paul wrote.
For Jews, Gods Justice is central to understanding their world view. Something has gone terribly wrong in the world and Gods righteousness is the rectifying power which will accomplish justice and shalom on Earth. In Jewish theology this represented the coming age and the victory of God on Earth over sin and death. Paul reinterprets this in view of the Christ event. Jesus comes to earth, lives an obedient life to God, proclaiming Gods righteousness, and the coming of Gods righteousness to all. He lives this obedient life to the point of a humiliating death on the cross and then God raises and exalts him as Lord above all, and name above all names (Phil 2:6-11). Through Jesus' death on the cross, all creation can be repaired and brought back into shalom. Paul Sees the Christ even as restoring Israel and all nations into right covenantal relationship with God.
Gods Justice is active and restorative. The Focus in the bible is on doing justice rather than the way that western societies think of enacting justice through a law court. For example, the Jewish people are to follow the ethical and religious activities prescribed by the mosaic covenant. To be righteous is to be faithful to the covenant that God has put in place. To be unrighteous is to break this covenant, thus being unrighteous, not caring for the broken hearted, the poor in spirit, putting ourselves first and not loving others. Following the pattern prescribed by the covenant is to live in shalom. When the covenant is broken, covenant justice is fulfilled though not by punishment like we have in western court systems, but by the restoration of shalom – through repentance. Pain might be inflicted, but this is a consequence of the failure, a result of not following the right order (If you don't wear a seatbelt and you crash you are going to suffer the consequences.) God is continually faithful and merciful to his people and is active in restoring the relationship with his people. No matter what Israel does, God still leaves room for them to repent and restore relationship once again.
Christians are supposed to enact Gods righteousness in their own life. Many times Christians have been so focused on justification by faith and being against legalism, that we have forgotten that one of our main aims is to live lives that enact justice in this world, based on a holistic view of creation rather than one based on crime and punishment. Christians aim is to be in partnership with Gods will and Gods restorative justice. Obedience to Gods will is about enacting shalom. It is not a way of gaining salvation but about being relationship with God and fulfilling his plan for this world. Christians can bring about an aspect of shalom in their own life by this and fulfilling social justice. Christians should be looking for ways that they can liberate the oppressed and show them the good news, so that the whole world will be blessed through Gods righteousness shown through Christians. We should also be willing to forgive our neighbors, not willing to get even, but to get right with them, restoring relationship with them. How much better would the world be if we saw people seek forgiveness rather than retribution for past wrongs; we wouldn't have had the wars between the Protestants and Catholics in Ireland, or the wars between the Hutus and Tutsis. We would see the fulfillment of shalom, rather than its undermining. This is a radical call to change our relationships between one another for peace on earth.
Posted by Nathanael Baker at 11:41 AM
Sunday, September 17, 2006
I have got to say that this is just an awesome ep, and it left we waiting for more. Pillar are a great band, who are showing thier maturity as a band on their latest ep. These guys keep getting better and better and show that they desserve the success that they have gained.
Nothing Comes for Free is a seven long EP, with three new songs, and 4 live recordings from Blue cats (I don't know where that is, but it sounds like it was an awesome gig from the recordings!)
The first song on the record Everything has all the qualities of a great Pillar song, it has the raw energy and killer rifts found on their last LP Where do we go from Here. This song holds true to Pillar, who have never let go of thier beliefs for fame. They fully tell their listeners that to be a christian is not an easy road, and that it costs everything and that for a christian to gain the prize which means everything (Christ Jesus, our salvation!)
The second song, called Escape Continues to tell the evangelical message that Pillar pumps hard and fast. Jesus is our hope, and is our only escape from sin, death, pain, suffering. Jesus is the way, the truth and the life. This song will not be on the full length album - The Reckoning, but it deserves to be! This song again follows from thier last album. It has alot of punk sounding rifts and chords, and reminds me alot of Holding On, But it is a slower song
Dangerous is another great song and is my favourite song on the record, and for me should be one of the signature songs of Pillar, I can't understand why it has not made the cut for The Reckoning. They must have some awesome songs for the coming record. It is a full on pumping song. Classic, classic pillar! The song keeps me rocking for the whole 3 1/2 minutes.
I'm not going to comment on the live songs, only to say that it sounds like they played an awesome concert that day, makes me hope that they will come to parachute and play a concert. The one thing they should have had on this EP was an acoustic version of Simply. That would have made my day!
I am really looking forward to The Reckoning. This album was supposed to come out early this year, but its worth the wait. The new material that did not make the cut for the album is awesome, and hopefully means that the new album will be just brilliant. Otherwise I will be slagging off pillar in a month. It sounds like pillar have moved further away from the rap core genre, and are doing solid, hard, alternative rock, with a splash of punk in thier music which is great. I think thier next album will show that this band is maturing to the next level.
Posted by Nathanael Baker at 3:39 PM
Wednesday, September 06, 2006
Paul and his teachings on marriage and sex have long been misunderstood by readers. Paul has been viewed by readers as a misogynist and a puritan when it comes to sexual practice. Paul has been the subject of blame, rather than the forces of history and the misinterpretation of these texts. In light of this the first question that comes to my mind is ‘Paul, what were you trying to say when you wrote 1 Corinthians 7?’ Indeed I have tried to answer this question in my essay with reference to modern hermeneutical study on this passage. In doing this I have made reference to the situation in Corinth at the time which Paul wrote 1 Corinthians, and to his theological convictions. Paul’s writing needs to be critiqued and the question needs to be asked whether or not it can be directly applied to the time in which we live. In my view we have to take historical situation into account and ask how this applies to us now. We live in a different time, and a different world from the one Paul wrote to, and our situation is thus different. The art of good hermeneutics is getting into Paul’s world and coming up with an interpretation that helps us live a life in the here and now. I try to do this in this essay.
Paul starts 1 Corinthians 7 with the statement, 'it is good for a man not to touch a woman.' Some early writers, and often others have become confused with what Paul is saying here. Paul is not saying that 'it is good for a man not to touch a woman', but is responding to this statement. Commentators generally agree that some of the Corinthians had formulated this statement as a guide for right living and Paul was responding to this maxim One position argued by scholar Antoinette Clark is that a group of woman prophets in the Corinthian Christian community had withdrawn from sexual relationships (Cor 7:1-40) and were advocating asceticism as a means to gain personal holiness. The Church in Corinth had misinterpreted early Christian teaching believing the new age had come already. If they had access to the Jesus tradition they would understand from the teaching in Luke 20:34-46 that marriage did not occur in the new age and that sexual relations should be avoided. The Corinthian were even more confused because the teaching of stoic and hellenistic philosophies urged celibacy or if married, abstinence from sexual relations if you wanted to gain spiritual wisdom. The problem is that being married and abstaining from sexual relations asks for trouble, especially in a city like Corinth, which was known for its sexual temptations. Paul’s response to the situation in Corinth is a balancing act where he upholds sexual relations between men and women while still advocating celibacy as a perfectly good lifestyle choice. Paul in fact prefers singleness to the married state (1 Cor 7:37). In this whole section Paul walks a pragmatic line with his reader. He knows that a position promoting asceticism and celibacy is untenable, as it affronts Roman mores which advocated marriage and it would run the risk of leading to immorality in the Corinthian community. These are both evils that needed to be avoided by the Corinthian community. In the marriage relationship Paul allows a concession - a man and wife can abstain from sexual relations when three conditions are fulfilled: that there is mutual consent between the man and women; that abstinence from sexual relations is only for a time; and that it would be for the seeking of the Lord in prayer. Paul reaffirms in these passages that sex and marriage are both good and holy, and that each partner should look out for the needs of one another. In fact Paul makes it clear that there should be equality within the marriage relationship (vv. 4-5) and that there are obligations both ways to care for one another. A husband doesn’t even have authority over his own body, his wife does; and a wife doesn't have authority over her own body, her husband does! This is a very challenging call for anyone in a marriage relationship. How this works out in the marriage relationship will be different for every couple and every situation, but the principle is that marriage partners should care for one another, make compromises and grow in their relationships with one another.
On the issue of widows, Paul walks the thin line between the acceptable and unacceptable once again. He wants the reader to be free from the social pressures of the Roman society which advocated remarriage, and the pressures of those in the church who advocated celibacy. Paul states that for widows 'it is good and well for them to remain [single] as I am' (v. 8) but Paul offers the concession that if self-control is a problem they should remarry (v. 9). Paul advocates celibacy, but those who do not have the ‘gift’ of celibacy should marry, since ‘it is better to marry than to burn’. As we have been alerted to earlier, Paul is aware of the situation that these single Christians face and the temptation of living in a cosmopolitan city such as Corinth, and that it is better for them to marry than fall into temptation. Paul wants the Christian to be able to choose the best solution for themselves, being free from outside influence. This in my view is very freeing, both is the past and in the present situation. Many times we are driven by social conditions to fulfill certain social requirements, the need for a new house or car, et cetera. The same can be said for marriage. In this day and age in the evangelical Christian church marriage has a lot of appeal to Christians. It is seen by some as the ultimate in life to get married, settle down and have a family, but this is not the same for all people, and the church should recognize this. People in the church should not put pressure on people to marry and have a family. I have heard of many occasions where people have been hurt by members of the church, as they have been urged to quick pace, hurry up and get married. This is not what Paul was teaching. There is a flip side to this; in the Catholic and Orthodox churches it has been seen as the highest type of devotion to God to remain celibate. Holiness is not defined by your marriage state but your relationship with God. Christians should be able to make their own moral choices, through the spirit, and not be driven by a prescriptive teaching on marriage. Many will choose marriage, but some will not, and as Paul states: ‘However that may be, let each of you lead the life that the Lord has assigned, to which God called you. This is my rule in all the churches’. (v. 17) We should be content with where God places us, desiring to do his will in that situation.
Paul’s teaching on divorce is the only point in this section of 1 Corinthians that Paul lays down a command. He refers to the teaching of Jesus and the command that Jesus made in Mark 10:9 and bases his teaching on divorce. Paul believes that divorce was never intended for God's children. Men and women and made in God's image, and there is something mysterious about this relationship which reflects God's image back onto the world. Destroying this bond brings damage to the people involved and also dishonours God. Under Roman law, the man or the woman was allowed to institute the divorce; Paul accommodates this by stating that he does not allow either man or women to divorce. Paul’s advice to those who have divorced is that they should either ‘remain unmarried’ or ‘be reconciled’ with their partner. To those believers married to unbelievers he admits that his advice is his own opinion. He echoes his earlier advice in v. 11, extending Jesus’ teaching on divorce, stressing that the marriage should continue if the unbeliever still wants the relationship to continue. He then gives further rationale for his advice. He holds the hope that the unbelieving spouse would become a Christian, as they are shown the love of Christ in the marriage relationship. The other rationale is that the children would be made ‘holy’ rather than unclean, and, being under the influence of one Christian parent, the love of the God and the power of the Gospel would be shared with them, and that they would be brought up to live a Christian life. But, if the non Christian partner did not want to be associated with the Christian partner and Christian movement, Paul would not oppose the split. The problem with Paul’s teaching is that it doesn’t deal with the complexity of relationships. It doesn’t answer questions on what should be done when a spouse is abused by the other in particular. Almost all would agree that in situations of abuse that the partner should leave both for their welfare and the welfare of the children involved.
For the unmarried, Paul has no word from the Lord, but he has his own maxim for them. His maxim is ‘in view of the impending crisis, it is well for you to remain as you are’ (v. 26). He then states that if you marry, you do not sin (v.28). Paul’s maxim and advice is bound up with his belief that the impending conclusion of history and of God's work began in Christ. Paul’s view that the end of the ages is coming shapes his opinion on believers' present conditions and the institutions of the present age and how Christians should relate to them. Does it make sense to marry and start a family if the end of the ages is about to come? Not really. What would people do presently if we found out there was going to be a massive cataclysmic event in the next two years, especially in a community of faith who believed that salvation came through the gospel? The most important thing for the Christian to do would be to share the gospel, not to start a family.  So what does this mean to Christians who live today, 2000 years after these letters were first written, who still haven’t seen ‘the end of ages’ talked about so regularly in the New Testament, and don’t have the same sense of an impending end that the early Christians have? Tom Wright suggests that it should bring the sense for the Christian that they can never settle down and treat the world as if it is going to last forever. The Christian should be not alarmed with the turbulence and the stress of the world around them, and should not be distressed in having to put off the life that one would expect to enjoy or experience. Paul wants his readers to reevaluate their whole view of the world and how they react to the world around them. 'Remaining as you are' is seen as a way of maximizing devotion to the Lord – which is seen as the better option for the Christian in this time. The aim of the Christian should be to put as much focus into the Christian community as possible, and bringing others into that community as well. Those who are betrothed/engaged should remain single in this time and devote their time to the Lord, but if their passions are too strong, and they are acting inappropriately towards their fiancée, they should get married. Paul does not consider this a sin. Paul concludes with the belief that pleasing your spouse and pleasing the Lord ultimately lead in different directions. This is a highly negative and disturbing view of the marriage relationship - believing the rationale for marriage only is to stop physical temptation. He does not even suggest that the intimacy of the marriage relationship can be pleasing to the Lord. Nor does he suggest that a Christian marriage can be helpful in achieving similar ministry aims and strengthen a person’s ministry. His conclusions are driven by the strength of his eschatological convictions rather than these other concerns.
Paul’s teaching on marriage, sex and divorce is written to address a certain audience with a set of concerns. Paul’s teaching on marriage and the marriage relationship seems rather brief and not very deep, and is not prescriptive either, but aims to deal with the pastoral needs of those to whom he is writing. His desire is not to produce a treatise on the marriage relationship, but answers the concerns of his readers. It would be wrong to say that it is an adequate guide for marriage counseling in this day and age. It probably was never seen as a guide for marriage counseling. It's a set of answers to questions that Paul was given. So what then do these teaching mean for us? Paul’s personal view seems to be that singleness is the preferred state, but he does not oppose marriage and sees it as good and holy. Paul views his readers as rational beings who can decide for themselves what state of lifestyle they should choose, not driven by social mores. Paul’s rationale for marriage seems to be rather negative but should be viewed in reference with his eschatology. He is primarily concerned that Christians put their relationship with God first and not get caught up in the desires of the world. Probably his strongest word is on divorce, echoing the commands of Jesus and trying to dissuade people from divorcing. This comes from his belief that the Marriage covenant should not be broken because of the emotional damage it causes and the dishonour it causes to God. The most striking and important remark from Paul is on equality within the marriage relationship. Taking this to light, Paul should not be considered a misogynist; rather he is very bold and revolutionary in this proclamation. These words are still some of the most challenging and relevant words from 1 Corinthians for the Christian involved in a marriage partnership. Living a life of love, and giving yourself wholly to your partner is a central element of the marriage partnership and these are the most important words to me in this day and age.
J. Paul Sampey, 'First Letter to the Corinthians', in New Interpreter's Bible, Vol X, Nashville, p865
 Brendan Byrne SJ, Paul and the Christian Women, Homebush, 1988, p18
N.T. Wright, Paul for Everyone – 1 Corinthians, (2nd ed), London, 2003, p77
 Bonnie Thurston, in the New Testament: Questions and Commentary, New York, 1998 , p42
 SJ, p.20
 Wright, pp.78-79
 SJ, p.22
 Wright, p82
 Sampey, p875
 Ibid, p877
 Wright , p84.
 Sampey, p.885
 SJ, pp24-25
 Wright, pp91-92
 Sampey, p.890
 Ibid, p889
 SJ, p25
Posted by Nathanael Baker at 9:00 AM